In order to understand the crustal structure and tectonic background of the Changning–Gongxiang area, southeastern Sichuan Province, where a series of moderate-to-strong earthquakes occurred in recent years, we utilized the seismic phase data both from a local dense array and from the regional seismic networks; we used the tomoDD program to invert for the high-resolution three-dimensional velocity structure within the depth range of 0–10 km and for accurate hypocentral locations in this area. We analyzed the seismogenic structures for the events of Xingwen M5.7 in 2018 and Gongxian M5.3 and Changning M6.0 in 2019. The results show that: (1) widespread lateral inhomogeneity exists in the velocity structure of the study area, and the location of the velocity anomaly is largely consistent with known structures. In the range of distinguishable depth, the inhomogeneity decreases with increasing depth, and the velocity structure anomalies in some areas are continuous in depth; (2) earthquakes occurred in clusters, showing the characteristics of zonal folding trends in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions; the focal depth in the area is generally shallow in both the sedimentary cap and the crystalline basement. The seismogenic structures of small earthquake clusters are different in size and occurrence in different sections, and the clusters occurred mostly in regions with high P- or S-wave velocities; (3) synthesis of a variety of data suggests that the seismogenic structures of the Xingwen M5.7 and Changning M6.0 earthquakes are associated with slip faults that trend NW-SE in, respectively, the south wing and the axis of the Changning–Shuanghe anticline, while that of the Gongxian M5.3 earthquake is associated with thrust faults that trend N-S in the Jianwu syncline region. The dynamic sources of the three earthquakes are all from the SE pushing of the Qinghai–Tibet block on the Sichuan basin; (4) the risk of future strong earthquakes in this area must be reevaluated in light of the facts (a) that in recent years, moderate-to-strong earthquake swarms have occurred frequently in southeast Sichuan; (b) that the complex structural area exhibits the easy-to-trigger characteristic, and (c) that the small-scale faults in this area are characterized by the phenomenon of stress “lock and release”.
Measurements of Jupiter's gravity field by Juno have been acquired with unprecedented precision, but uncertainties in the planet’s hydrogen–helium equation of state (EOS) and the hydrogen–helium phase separation have meant that differences remain in the interior model predictions. We deduce an empirical EOS from Juno gravity field observations in terms of the hydrostatic equation and then investigate the structure and composition of Jupiter by comparison of the empirical EOS with Jupiter's adiabats obtained from the physical EOS. The deduced helium mass fraction suggests depletion of helium in the outermost atmosphere and helium concentration in the inner molecular hydrogen region, which is a signature of helium rain in Jupiter's interior. The deduced envelope metallicity (the heavy-element mass fraction) is as high in the innermost envelope as 11–13 times the solar value. Such a high metallicity provides sharp support to the dilute core model with the heavy elements dissolved in hydrogen and expanded outward. No matter how the core mass is varied, the empirical EOS derived from the two-layer interior model generally suggests higher densities in the innermost envelope than does the best-fit Jupiter's adiabat; this result is, again, a signature of dilute cores in Jupiter's interior. Moreover, no matter the core mass, the empirical EOS is found to exhibit an inflexion point in the deep interior, around 10 Mbar, which can be explained as the combined effect of helium concentration in the upper part and dilute cores in the lower part.
To infer the internal equilibrium structure of a gaseous planet, especially the equation of state (EOS) and size of its inner core, requires accurate determination of lower-order zonal gravitational coefficients. Modeling of the gravitational signature associated with deep zonal circulation depends critically upon reliable subtraction of the dynamical components from totally derived gravitational coefficients. In the era of the Juno mission and the Grand Finale phase of the Cassini mission, it is timely and necessary to revisit and examine the so-called ‘Thermal Wind Equation (TWE)’, which has been extensively utilized to diagnose the dynamical parts of the gravitational fields measured by the two spacecrafts. TWE treats as negligible a few terms in the full equation of balance. However, the self-gravitational anomaly of the distorted fluid, unlike oblateness effects of solid-body rotation, is not a priori minor and thus should not be neglected in the name of approximation. Another equation, the ‘Thermal Gravitational Wind Equation (TGWE)’, includes this important additional term; we compare it with the TWE and show that physically the TGWE models a fundamentally different balance from the TWE and delivers numerical results considerably different from models based on the TWE. We conclude that the TWE balance cannot be relied upon to produce realistic convection models. Only after the TGWE balance is obtained can the relative importance of terms be assessed. The calculations we report here are based on two types of zonal circulations that are produced by realistically possible convections inside planets, instead of being constructed or assumed.
In this paper we show that two significant phenomena of magnetospheric chorus emission can be explained by the participation of beam-like electron structures, created by Landau-resonant interaction with growing oblique whistler waves. The first concerns the widely observed spectral gap near half the electron cyclotron frequency Ωe; the second is related to the observation of very obliquely propagating lower-band waves that cannot be directly generated by temperature anisotropy. Concerning the gap, kinetic dispersion theory reveals that interference of the beam-related cyclotron mode ω~Ωe-kVb with the conventional whistler mode leads to mode splitting and the appearance of a ‘forbidden’ area in the ω-k space. Thereby the beam velocity Vb appears as an essential parameter. It is directly related to the phase velocity of the most unstable whistler wave mode, which is close to VAe/2 for sufficiently hot electrons (VAe is the electron Alfven velocity). To clarify the second point, we show that Landau-resonant beams with Vb < VAe/2, which arise in cold plasmas from unstable upper-band waves, are able to generate lower-band whistler mode waves at very oblique propagation (θ ≥ 60°). Our studies demonstrate the important role of Landau-resonant electrons in nonlinear whistler wave generation in the magnetosphere.
Seismic hazard analysis is gaining increased attention in the present era because of the catastrophic effects of earthquakes. Scientists always have as a goal to develop new techniques that will help forecast earthquakes before their reoccurrence. In this research, we have performed a shear failure experiment on rock samples with prefabricated cracks to simulate the process of plate movement that forms strike-slip faults. We studied the evolution law of the deformation field to simulate the shear failure experiment, and these results gave us a comprehensive understanding of the elaborate strain distribution law and its formation process with which to identify actual fault zones. We performed uniaxial compression tests on marble slabs with prefabricated double shear cracks to study the distribution and evolution of the deformation field during shear failure. Analysis of the strain field at different loading stages showed that with an increase in the load, the shear strain field initially changed to a disordered-style distribution. Further, the strain field was partially concentrated and finally completely concentrated near the crack and then distributed in the shape of a strip along the crack. We also computed coefficients of variation (CVs) for the physical quantities u, v, and exy, which varied with the load. The CV curves were found to correspond to the different loading stages. We found that at the uniform deformation stage, the CV value was small and changed slowly, whereas at the later nonuniform deformation stage, the CV value increased sharply and changed abruptly. Therefore, the precursor to a rock sample breakdown can be predicted by observing the variation characteristics of CV statistics. The correlation we found between our experimental and theoretical results revealed that our crack evolution and sample deformation results showed good coupling with seismic distribution characteristics near the San Andreas Fault.
The Chinese Chang'e-3 mission landed close to the eastern rim of the ~450 m diameter Ziwei crater. Regional stratigraphy of the landing site and impact excavation model suggest that the bulk continuous ejecta deposits of the Ziwei crater are composed by Erathothenian-aged mare basalts. Along the traverse of the Yutu rover, the western segment features a gentle topographic uplift (~0.5 m high over ~4 m), which is spatially connected with the structurally-uplifted crater rim. Assuming that this broad topographic uplift has physical properties discontinuous with materials below, we use data returned by the high-frequency lunar penetrating radar onboard the Yutu rover to estimate the possible range of relative permittivity for this topographic uplift. Only when the relative permittivity is ~9 is the observed radar reflection consistent with the observed topography, suggesting that the topographic uplift is composed of basaltic blocks that were excavated by the Ziwei crater. This result is consistent both with the impact excavation model that predicts deeper basaltic materials being deposited closer to the crater rim, and with observation of numerous half-buried boulders on the surface of this hill. We note that this study is the first to use topography and radargram data to estimate the relative permittivity of lunar surface uplifts, an approach that has had many successful applications on Mars. Similar approaches can apply other ground penetrating radar data for the Moon, such as will be available from the ongoing Chang'e-4 mission.
O++ is an interesting species in the ionospheres of both the Earth and Venus. Recent measurements made by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on board the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft provide the first firm detection of O++ in the Martian ionosphere. This study is devoted to an evaluation of the dominant O++ production and destruction channels in the dayside Martian ionosphere, by virtue of NGIMS data accumulated over a large number of MAVEN orbits. Our analysis reveals the dominant production channels to be double photoionization of O at low altitudes and photoionization of O+ at high altitudes, respectively, in response to the varying degree of O ionization. O++ destruction is shown to occur mainly via charge exchange with CO2 at low altitudes and with O at high altitudes. In the dayside median sense, an exact balance between O++ production and destruction is suggested by the data below 200 km. The apparent discrepancy from local photochemical equilibrium at higher altitudes is interpreted as a signature of strong O++ escape on Mars, characterized by an escape rate of 6×1022 s–1.
The photoelectron peak at 22–27 eV, a distinctive feature of the energetic electron distribution in the dayside Martian ionosphere, is a useful diagnostic of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray ionization as well as of large-scale transport along magnetic field lines. In this work, we analyze the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons at 22–27 eV measured during several representative Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) orbits, based on the electron spectra gathered by MAVEN’s Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument. On the dayside, most photoelectron spectra show an isotropic PAD as is expected from production via solar EUV/X-ray ionization. The photoelectron spectra occasionally observed on the nightside show instead a strongly anisotropic PAD, indicative of cross-terminator transport along ambient magnetic field lines. This would in turn predict the presence of dayside photoelectrons, also with a strongly anisotropic PAD, which was indeed revealed in SWEA data. Comparison with magnetic field measurements made by the MAVEN Magnetometer suggests that on average the photoelectrons with anisotropic PAD stream away from Mars on the dayside and towards Mars on the nightside, further supporting the scenario of day-to-night transport. On both sides, anisotropic photoelectrons tend to be observed above the photoelectron exobase at ~160 km where photoelectron transport dominates over local production and energy degradation.
A three-dimensional four species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model was constructed to simulate the solar wind global interaction with Mars. The model was augmented to consider production and loss of the significant ion species in the Martian ionosphere, i.e., H+, O2+, O+, CO2+, associated with chemical reactions among all species. An ideal dipole-like local crustal field model was used to simplify the empirically measured Martian crustal field. Results of this simulation suggest that the magnetic pile-up region (MPR) and the velocity profile in the meridian plane are asymmetric, which is due to the nature of the multi-fluid model to decouple individual ion velocity resulting in occurrence of plume flow in the northern Martian magnetotail. In the presence of dipole magnetic field model, boundary layers, such as bow shock (BS) and magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB), become protuberant. Moreover, the crustal field has an inhibiting effect on the flux of ions escaping from Mars, an effect that occurs primarily in the region between the terminator (SZA 90°) and the Sun–Mars line of the magnetotail (SZA 180°), partially around the terminator region. In contrast, near the tailward central line the crustal field has no significant impact on the escaping flux.
We perform a statistical analysis of data from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) project on the global distribution of protons in the Martian magnetosheath. Our results show that the proton number density distribution has a south-north asymmetry. This south-north asymmetry is most likely caused by the south-north asymmetric distributions of the crustal magnetic fields at Mars. The strong crustal magnetic fields push the inner boundary of magnetosheath to a higher altitude in the southern hemisphere. Due to the outward movement of the inner boundary of the magnetosheath, a compressed magnetosheath forms, causing subsequent increases in proton number density, thermal pressure, and total pressure. Eventually, a balance is reached between the increased total pressure inside the magnetosheath and the increased magnetic pressure inside the induced magnetosphere. Our statistical study suggests that the Martian crustal magnetic fields can strongly affect the proton number density distribution in the Martian magnetosheath.
The Martian hydrogen exosphere extends out of the bow shock, forming a "hydrogen corona". The solar wind interacts directly with the hydrogen corona. During an ICME event on 7 March 2015, the SWIA instrument onboard Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN) observed that the pick-up H+ fluxes in upstream solar wind were enhanced. Also increased were the penetrating H+ fluxes in the Martian atmosphere. Quantitatively, these penetrating H+ fluxes cannot increase by a factor of 5 simply due to a factor of 3 increase in the solar wind density, suggesting that the increased abundance of exospheric hydrogen upstream of the bow shock was a consequence of the passage of the ICME. A denser outer hydrogen corona at high altitudes suggests that the expansion of the neutral atmosphere was caused by the ICME. The excited and heated hydrogen exosphere probably indicates an elevated hydrogen escape rate during an ICME.
Foreshock ultralow frequency (ULF) waves constitute a significant physical phenomenon in the plasma environment of terrestrial planets. The occurrence of these waves, associated with backstreaming particles reflected and accelerated at the bow shock, implies specific conditions and properties of the shock and its foreshock. Using magnetic field and ion measurements from MAVEN, we report a clear event of ULF waves in the Martian foreshock. The interplanetary magnetic field connected to the Martian bow shock, forming a shock angle of ~51°. Indicating that this was a fast mode wave is the fact that ion density varied in phase with perturbations of the wave field. The peak frequency of the waves was about 0.040 Hz in the spacecraft frame, much lower than the local proton gyrofrequency (~0.088 Hz). The ULF waves had a propagation angle approximately 34° from ambient magnetic field and were accompanied by the whistler mode. The ULF waves displayed left-hand elliptical polarization with respect to the interplanetary magnetic field in the spacecraft frame. All these properties fit very well with foreshock waves excited by interactions between solar wind and backstreaming ions through right-hand beam instability.
Proton cyclotron waves (PCWs) can be generated by ion pickup of Martian exospheric particles in the solar wind. The solar wind ion pickup process is highly dependent on the “IMF cone angle” — the angle between the solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which also plays an important role in the generation of PCWs. Using data from 2.15 Martian years of magnetic field measurements collected by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, we have identified 3307 upstream PCW events. Their event number distribution decreases exponentially with their duration. A statistical investigation of the effects of IMF cone angle on the amplitudes and occurrence rates of PCWs reveals a slight tendency of PCWs’ amplitudes to decrease with increasing IMF cone angle. The relationship between the amplitude and IMF cone angle is weak, with a correlation coefficient r = –0.3. We also investigated the influence of IMF cone angle on the occurrence rate of PCWs and found that their occurrence rate is particularly high for intermediate IMF cone angles (~18°–42°) even though highly oblique IMF orientation occurs most frequently in the upstream region of the Martian bow shock. We also conclude that these variabilities are not artefacts of temporal coverage biases in MAVEN sampling. Our results demonstrate that whereas IMF cone angle strongly influences the occurrence of PCWs, IMF cone angle may also weakly modulate their amplitudes in the upstream region of Mars.
Forbush decreases are depressions in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) that are caused primarily by modulations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) but also occasionally by stream/corotating interaction regions (SIRs/CIRs). Forbush decreases have been studied extensively using neutron monitors at Earth; recently, for the first time, they have been measured on the surface of another planet, Mars, by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity. The modulation of GCR particles by heliospheric transients in space is energy-dependent; afterwards, these particles interact with the Martian atmosphere, the interaction process depending on particle type and energy. In order to use ground-measured Forbush decreases to study the space weather environment near Mars, it is important to understand and quantify the energy-dependent modulation of the GCR particles by not only the pass-by heliospheric disturbances but also by the Martian atmosphere. Accordingly, this study presents a model that quantifies — both at the Martian surface and in the interplanetary space near Mars — the amplitudes of Forbush decreases at Mars during the pass-by of an ICME/SIR by combining the heliospheric modulation of GCRs with the atmospheric modification of such modulated GCR spectra. The modeled results are in good agreement with measurements of Forbush decreases caused by ICMEs/SIRs based on data collected by MSL on the surface of Mars and by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft in orbit. Our model and these findings support the validity of both the Forbush decrease description and Martian atmospheric transport models.
The Venusian dayside ionosphere, similar to other planetary ionospheres, is produced primarily by ionization of its neutral upper atmosphere due to solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. It has become clear that the expansion of the ionosphere may be strongly controlled by the EUV level, as exhibited in data collected by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) during one solar cycle (1978–1992). However, the EUV-dependence of the Venusian dayside ionopause altitude, which defines the outer boundary of the ionosphere, remains obscure because the PVO crossed the dayside ionopause only during the solar maximum; its periapsis lifted too high during the solar minimum. Recently, during the period 2006–2014, which included the longest and quietest solar minimum of the past several decades, Venus Express (VEX) provided measurements of the photoelectron boundary (PEB) over the northern high-latitude region. Since the photoelectron boundary is closely related to the ionopause, we have an opportunity to analyze the EUV effect on the dayside ionopause by combining PVO and VEX observations. We have evaluated and then reduced the orbit bias effect in data from both PVO and VEX, and then used the results to derive a relationship between solar EUV level and the dayside ionopause altitude. We find that the dayside ionopause altitude increases as the solar EUV level increases, which is consistent with theoretical expectations.
With Venus Express magnetic field measurements at 32 Hz from 2006 to 2012, we investigate statistically the magnetic fluctuations in the near-Venusian space. The global spatial distribution of their spectral scaling features is presented in MHD and kinetic regimes. It can be observed that turbulence is a common phenomenon in the solar wind in both regimes. The solar wind MHD turbulence is modified at the Venusian bow shock; MHD turbulence is absent in the Venusian magnetosheath but present at the magnetosheath boundary layer. Pre-existing kinetic turbulence from the far upstream solar wind is modified in the near solar wind region, while kinetic turbulence can be extensively observed throughout the Venusian magnetosheath and in some regions of the induced magnetosphere. Our results reveal that, in the near-Venusian space, energy cascade can be developed at the boundary between magnetosheath and wake, and the turbulence-related dissipation of magnetic energy occurs extensively in the magnetosheath and the induced magnetosphere.